Chapter 47
Retinal Vasculitis
Main Menu   Table Of Contents



Retinal vasculitis may occur alone or as part of a systemic disease and may be the first manifestation of life-threatening illness.
Back to Top


Immune complexes are formed by the association of an antibody with an antigen. Low levels of circulating immune complexes are found in most people and may promote the efficient removal of tissue debris or excess antigen. Immune complexes can activate the complement cascade, attracting polymorphonuclear leukocytes that release proteolytic enzymes, and cause tissue or vascular injury.

Circulating immune complexes and complement abnormalities have been reported in connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and polyarteritis nodosa, in Behçet's disease, in HLA-B27+ uveitis, and in idiopathic retinal vasculitis.1–3 The Arthus reaction is a model for immune complex vasculitis and produces histopathologic changes resembling those seen in Behçet's disease.4 Because of these findings, retinal vasculitis was postulated to be due to immune complex deposition.5 However, the role of immune complex-mediated tissue damage in the eye remains unclear. Studies on idiopathic retinal vasculitis suggest that immune complexes may actually have a protective function, neutralizing anti-retinal autoantibodies.6,7


Antibodies may bind directly to surface antigens of cells and tissues, leading to activation of the complement system and effector cells, resulting in cell lysis or cytotoxic damage.8 An example of antibody-mediated ocular disease is cancer-related retinopathy (CAR), in which antibodies that are produced against a tumor cross-react with retinal tissue, causing retinal damage.9

Antibodies to human vascular endothelial cells have been detected in the sera of patients with a variety of vasculitic disorders, including Wegener's granulomatosis and polyarteritis nodosa.10–13 Autoantibodies to endothelial cells were found in 47% of patients with retinal vasculitis associated with systemic disease and in 35% of patients with idiopathic retinal vasculitis.14 In the same study, only 1% of normal controls had anti-endothelial cell antibodies. Possible mechanisms by which they induce vascular damage include complement fixation, neutrophil recruitment, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.15 In Behçet's disease, anti-endothelial cell antibodies have been associated with systemic thrombotic complications.14

Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibodies have been detected in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. It is postulated that these antibodies interact with stimulated neutrophils, resulting in their activation.16 The activated neutrophils then adhere to vascular endothelia and undergo degranulation, generating oxygen radicals that result in endothelial cell injury and inflammation.17 In vitro observations also indicate that anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibodies may interact directly with endothelial cells.16


Delayed hypersensitivity plays a role in Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, and sympathetic ophthalmia.8 In sarcoidosis, the macrophage is thought to initiate the inflammatory response.18 Abnormal cell-mediated immune responses to photoreceptor antigens have been found in idiopathic retinal vasculitis,19 and patients with retinal vasculitis have also been shown to have higher levels of natural killer cell activity.20

Back to Top
The major histocompatibility complex plays an important role in the initiation of the immune response. HLA-DR3 is common in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome, and HLA-DR4 is common in idiopathic retinal vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Takayasu's disease.21 Certain HLA types have also been linked to Behçet's disease (B51), multiple sclerosis (DR2), and birdshot retinochoroidopathy (A29).22–24
Back to Top
Inflammation of the retinal vessels is seen clinically as white cell cuffing, sheathing, or perivascular exudation. Patients with retinal vasculitis typically describe a painless decrease in vision, which may be associated with floaters or vitreous hemorrhage. Large areas of visual field loss, possibly due to ischemia, may also be present. Peripheral retinal involvement may result in minimal symptoms, but posterior pole involvement may be more symptomatic. In many patients, anterior uveitis, vitritis, and chorioretinitis accompany the vasculitis.


Venous inflammation is much more common than arteritis. Early venous changes include patchy dilatation, venous irregularity, and perivenous cuffing. These cuffs are made up of white blood cells and vary greatly in density, from minimal obscuration of a vein to complete concealment of the blood column without occlusion. Vitreous cells may be present over the vessels. Vascular sheathing appears as white lines along the vein walls and may result in venous flow impedance and vein occlusion (Figs. 1 and 2).25 It may be clinically difficult to distinguish perivenous inflammation from true phlebitis. Any vein from the optic nerve head to the peripheral retina is susceptible.

Fig. 1. Linear venous sheathing in a patient with Eales' disease.

Fig. 2. Patient with Behçet's disease. Notice the linear sheathing of the superotemporal vein with adjacent retinal hemorrhage. There is intermittent sheathing along the superonasal vessels.

If inflammation is prolonged, secondary changes such as thickening of the vein wall and endothelial cell proliferation may occur. These can lead to narrowing and obstruction of the lumen, thrombosis, and necrosis. Other late changes secondary to vascular occlusion include telangiectasia, microaneurysms, and neovascularization.21 Histopathologically, polymorphonuclear leukocytes are the predominant cell type early in the disease, but lymphocytes accompanied by an occasional plasma cell, giant cell, or epithelioid cell become the predominant cell types later in the disease.25

Fluorescein angiography often reveals focal areas of staining or dye leakage even before ophthalmoscopically visible signs are present (Fig. 3). In advanced cases of periphlebitis, angiography may show diffuse leakage of dye from retinal veins and capillaries.26

Fig. 3. Fluorescein angiogram of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus showing perivenous staining indicative of phlebitis.


The arterial changes in retinal vasculitis are varied. Immune complex deposition in precapillary arterioles may result in cotton-wool spots, as seen in SLE and certain infectious conditions.27,28 Aneurysmal dilatation of arteries has been observed in various infections, connective tissue diseases, and hypersensitivity vasculitides (Fig. 4).29

Fig. 4. Sheathing and inflammation around the superotemporal arteriole in a patient with idiopathic retinal vasculitis.

Arterioles may show segmental, periarteriolar, hard, yellowish nodular plaques (kyrieleis arteriolitis) that do not extend beyond the thickness of the vessel wall. The plaques are not visible angiographically and do not alter dye transit or cause permeability changes. Primarily associated with toxoplasmosis, they have also been seen in lues, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes zoster retinopathy.30–32

Severe inflammation can result in dense irregular sheathing of large arterial segments. This sheathing can conceal the blood column and extend beyond the width of the vessel wall. As the inflammation subsides, the arteries become white ghost vessels. Fluorescein angiography shows arteriolar occlusion with surrounding capillary nonperfusion. After arteriolar occlusions, neovascularization may occur in the areas of nonperfused retina (Fig. 5). This picture has been seen in connective tissue diseases, necrotizing viral retinitis, and Eales' disease.33 Pigment proliferation in a bone spicule pattern may also occur around and beyond the occluded arterioles.

Fig. 5. Sea-fan-like neovascular frond formed after vascular occlusion in a patient with Behçet's disease. The patient did not have diabetes or sickle cell disease.

Back to Top


Eales' disease was initially described as recurrent retinal and vitreal hemorrhages, epistaxis, constipation, and headaches in young men.34 It has since been redefined as an idiopathic obliterative peripheral retinovasculopathy with variable degrees of nonperfusion, vascular sheathing, retinal vascular abnormalities, peripheral retinal neovascularization, and hemorrhage (Fig. 6).35 It usually affects men in the third decade of life and is bilateral in up to 90% of cases.36 Many patients are symptomatic in only one eye, but fundus examination of the fellow eye may reveal early changes such as periphlebitis, vascular sheathing, and peripheral retinal nonperfusion.37 The presenting symptom in 90% of patients is a painless blurring of vision, often due to vitreous hemorrhage.36

Fig. 6. Patient with Eales' disease. Note the vascular sheathing, retinal hemorrhages, and peripheral venous obliteration. The patient later turned out to have sarcoidosis.

The clinical manifestations of Eales' disease result from three basic pathologic changes: inflammation, ischemia, and neovascularization.38 Vitreous cells are present and anterior segment inflammation is variable. In early stages, venous dilatation and tortuosity are seen in the periphery.37 Accumulation of exudate around peripheral retinal venules appears as thin white lines parallel to the blood column and can obscure the vessel. Areas of vascular sheathing frequently leak fluorescein dye; however, the sheathing does not always correspond to the staining, nor is the amount of leakage proportional to the activity of the inflammation.37

Progression of Eales' disease results in widespread venous occlusion, perivenular or arteriolar exudation, extensive sheathing, and retinal hemorrhage. Involved vessels become obliterated and avascular areas develop in the periphery. The junction between nonperfused and perfused retina is usually sharply demarcated.37 Vascular abnormalities seen at this junction include microaneurysms, venovenous shunts, venous beading, hard exudates, and cotton-wool spots.39,40 Obliteration of peripheral venules and arterioles and branch retinal vein occlusions can be confirmed angiographically.41

Capillary nonperfusion leads to peripheral and disc neovascularization; this is observed in up to 80% of patients with Eales' disease37 and contributes to the development of fibrous proliferation and the risk of retinal detachment. Peripheral neovascularization is more common and is frequently located at the junction between perfused and nonperfused retina. Bleeding from damaged or abnormal vessels may result in vitreous hemorrhage. Extension of nonperfusion into the posterior pole may result in decreased visual acuity due to macular edema or epiretinal membrane or macular hole formation. Some patients develop anterior uveitis, cataracts, rubeosis iridis, secondary neovascular glaucoma, and optic atrophy in the late stages of the disease.37

There is histopathologic evidence of lymphocytic and granulomatous infiltration of vessel walls and lumina, and perivascular spaces.42 The cause of Eales' disease, however, is unknown. It may represent a hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculoprotein. This hypothesis stems from isolated reports of vasculitis after skin testing or BCG vaccine and the prevalence of positive purified protein derivative testing in patients with the disease.43 Tubercles in the venous walls were also reported in the older literature.44 One study found elevated IgA and IgG levels in patients with Eales' disease,45 whereas other studies showed no immunoglobulin abnormality.46,47 Abnormal levels of circulating immune complexes have also been reported.48 Eales' disease probably has more than one cause.


Retinal vasculitis occurring in isolation, with no systemic association, has been referred to as idiopathic retinal vasculitis.49 Typical findings include inflammatory cells in the vitreous and sheathing of retinal veins and postcapillary venules. Fluorescein angiography may show diffuse capillary leakage.50 Idiopathic retinal vasculitis can be classified into ischemic and nonischemic forms. Patients with ischemic retinal vasculitis have a worse visual outcome despite aggressive systemic treatment than those with nonischemic retinal vasculitis.49 A few patients with idiopathic retinal vasculitis have disseminated central nervous system lesions characteristic of multiple sclerosis.50 Lyme disease and cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) have been anecdotally associated with retinal vasculitis.51–53


Optic disc vasculitis (papillophlebitis) is a unilateral, idiopathic, usually benign condition that primarily affects healthy adults younger than 40.54 The only symptom is blurred vision. Retinal findings include edema of the optic disc and adjacent retina, markedly dilated and tortuous retinal veins with minimal arterial involvement, and a variable amount of retinal hemorrhage (Fig. 7). Other findings include venous sheathing, retinociliary shunt vessels, and depigmentation of the macular area.55 Vitreous cells are absent or scant. Fluorescein angiography findings may include delayed venous filling, marked retinal venous dilatation, and massive dye leakage from the optic nerve head and large retinal veins.54

Fig. 7. Young woman with idiopathic papillophlebitis. The optic nerve is markedly swollen and the retinal veins are dilated and tortuous. Retinal hemorrhages are also seen. The patient did not improve with corticosteroids. The patient was found to have the lupus anticoagulant, and vision improved from 20/800 to 20/50 with anticoagulation.

Hayreh divided the disease into two types: type 1, with optic disc edema and good visual outcome as the dominant features, and type 2, with a clinical picture similar to central retinal vein occlusion.54 In the second type, the visual outcome depends on the site and extent of the lesion. Hayreh suggested that type 1 is due to a mild nonspecific vasculitis of the ciliary vessels, whereas type 2 is probably due to phlebitis of the central retinal vein within the optic nerve head or retrolaminar region.54

Papillophlebitis is self-limited, lasting 6 to 18 months, and the visual acuity is seldom severely decreased. Unlike peripheral retinal vasculitis (Eales' disease), optic disc vasculitis is rarely recurrent or associated with vitreous hemorrhage. No therapy is necessary, although corticosteroids have been reported to shorten the course. There is controversy over the existence of papillophlebitis, and some believe it represents a mild central retinal vein occlusion in a young person.56


Intermediate uveitis is a syndrome with a noninflamed external eye, low-grade anterior segment reaction without synechia formation, and vitreous inflammation. Mild periphlebitis and optic disc and macular edema may also occur. Intermediate uveitis includes “pars planitis” and conditions that have been previously called chronic cyclitis, vitritis, and peripheral uveitis. This syndrome has been associated with several systemic diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Whipple's disease, and reticulum cell sarcoma.57 Pars planitis is associated with the HLA-DR2 antigen and the temporal development of multiple sclerosis.23

Pars planitis, the classic intermediate uveitis that usually occurs in young people, is distinguished by the presence of whitish gray cellular exudate (snowbanking) over the inferior pars plana. Retinal vascular involvement has been reported in 13% to 77% of cases of pars planitis.58,59 Peripheral retinal veins appear dilated, segmented, and tortuous, some with vascular sheathing. Retinal vascular leakage is common and was found in 79% of fluorescein angiograms in one study.60 Patchy perivenous staining in the posterior pole may accompany the closely spaced spots of fluorescein stain along peripheral venules. Arterial involvement has been reported infrequently.61 Although the natural course is usually one of chronic smoldering inflammation, vein occlusions, peripheral and disc neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment have been observed.61,62 Histopathologic examination reveals thickening of the vessel wall and perivascular round cell cuffing.63 These changes can be observed as far posteriorly as the optic nerve.


Acute retinal necrosis is predominantly a fulminant retinitis with an associated obliterative vasculitis of the retina, uvea, and optic nerve.64 Acute retinal necrosis is characterized by panuveitis, vitritis, vaso-occlusive retinal arteritis, and necrotizing retinitis.65

Vitreous haze often makes fundus examination difficult, but frequently arteriolar occlusions can be seen associated with these areas of white retina. There is an abrupt border between normal and abnormal retina, suggestive of an ischemic process. Progression results in retinal artery narrowing and sheathing. Perivenous sheathing and intraretinal hemorrhage may also be present. Angiographically, there is arteriolar obliteration and absence of capillary perfusion in affected areas, as well as dye leakage and vessel wall staining in the late phase.

Electron microscopy, immunohistochemical techniques, and viral culture studies implicate members of the herpesvirus family in the genesis of acute retinal necrosis.66–70


Frosted branch angiitis, an inflammatory condition of unknown origin, is characterized by widespread periphlebitis with intraretinal hemorrhage in otherwise healthy patients. It is an acute condition and may be unilateral or bilateral. Fundus examinations reveal severe white sheathing of retinal vessels, resembling frosted tree branches. Although both arteries and veins may be involved, the venules tend to be more commonly affected. The inflammatory exudates around retinal vessels may be related to deposition of antigen-antibody complexes.71,72 Anterior chamber and vitreous inflammation may be seen. On fluorescein angiography, there is late staining and dye leakage with no evidence of stasis or occlusions.21 Frosted branch angiitis has also been reported in patents with cytomegalovirus retinitis (Fig. 8).73

Fig. 8. Frosted branch angiitis in a patient with AIDS. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is seen superiorly and temporally, as evidenced by retinal hemorrhages and white necrotic retina. Note the frosted branch appearance of the veins inferiorly and adjacent to the disc.


Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome usually affects young, healthy persons and has a slight female predominance.74 There are no systemic abnormalities. Retinal findings include dilatation of the retinal and optic nerve head arterioles, vasculitis, neuroretinitis, and extensive peripheral capillary nonperfusion. Retinal neovascularization, optic nerve head swelling, and anterior uveitis can occur. Systemic corticosteroids have little effect on the progression of the disease.74

Back to Top

Birdshot retinochoroidopathy is a bilateral intraocular inflammation affecting patients in the fifth to eight decades of life, with a slight female predilection. The most common complaints include floaters, progressive loss of vision, photopsias, and nyctalopia. The characteristic fundus findings are multiple depigmented or cream-colored lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid.

Retinal vascular abnormalities commonly seen in birdshot retinochoroidopathy include narrowing of retinal arterioles, sheathing of retinal vessels, vascular tortuosity, focal dilatation, and retinal neovascularization.75 Veins are more frequently involved than arteries. Retinal vascular leakage, papillitis, and cystoid macular edema may be seen on fluorescein angiography.76


Radiation damage to small retinal blood vessels may result in cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms, hard exudates, telangiectases, perivascular sheathing, and capillary nonperfusion. Vitreous cells are rare. Radiation retinopathy usually occurs several years after radiation is administered. Although direct effect on the vascular endothelium is thought to be the primary pathogenic mechanism, there is evidence for immune complex-mediated interactions.77

Back to Top

Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by autoantibody formation and small vessel occlusions. Ocular manifestations occur in approximately 15% of SLE patients, with retinal vasculitis reported in 5% of these patients.78 The retinopathy of SLE is primarily a diffuse arteriolar occlusive vasculitis,79,80 and there may be microangiopathy with cotton-wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhage (Fig. 9).81 Patients with only cotton-wool spots have a favorable prognosis.82 However, vaso-occlusive retinopathy carries a more severe prognosis, with about 50% of patients eventually becoming legally blind.83

Fig. 9. Patient with lupus vasculitis. Note the “cotton-wool spot” adjacent to the inferotemporal artery with a small hemorrhage.

Retinal manifestations of SLE may also include capillary nonperfusion, venous stasis, papilledema, and retinal edema. Occasionally, periphlebitis, perivenous sheathing, and branch or central vein occlusion are also found. Fluorescein angiography may show focal leakage from capillaries and arterioles, optic disc leakage, large vessel obstruction, delayed venous filling, microaneurysms, capillary nonperfusion, and neovascularization.

Involvement of the central nervous system was reported in 73% of patients with severe lupus retinopathy.83 A lupus-like syndrome of multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and neurologic disturbances affecting young women has been described.84 Although these patients do not fulfill the criteria for SLE, their disease suggests immune complex-mediated vasculitis similar to SLE. Patients with idiopathic retinal vasculitis may have positive blood tests for anti-phospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-nuclear antibodies without having definitive SLE.

Autoimmune mechanisms are believed to be the cause of SLE retinopathy.81 SLE patients with elevated anti-phospholipid antibodies have a higher risk of developing occlusive retinal vascular disease,85 and immune complexes have been found in the walls of retinal and choroidal vessels.27,86


Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease with symmetric inflammation of small joints, rheumatoid nodules, and a positive test for serum rheumatoid factor. Systemic vasculitis involving small to medium-sized vessels can occur.87 Retinal vasculitis was found on fluorescein angiography in 18% of patients with definite or classic rheumatoid arthritis, even if there was no clinical or ophthalmoscopic evidence of retinal vessel inflammation.88 Retinal vasculitis tends to occur during active phases of rheumatoid arthritis, as shown by a positive C-reactive protein test and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Fig. 10).87,88

Fig. 10. Patient with rheumatoid arthritis and retinal vasculitis. Note the optic disc swelling with retinal hemorrhages around the disc and in the periphery. The patient later developed cerebral vasculitis with vertical nystagmus.


Dermatomyositis and relapsing polychondritis have been associated with an ischemic retinopathy that resembles lupus.89,90 Retinopathy associated with dermatomyositis is rare and usually resolves without residual complications. Retinal findings may include cotton-wool spots, intraretinal hemorrhages, and macular edema, suggestive of an occlusive vasculitis process.91 Profound visual loss is caused by macular hemorrhage or edema, which produces central scotomas. Relapsing polychondritis is a rare connective tissue disease with inflammation of the auricular, nasal, and laryngotracheal cartilage.92 Ocular findings include episcleritis, scleritis, proptosis, corneal infiltrates, iridocyclitis, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, exudative retinal detachment, chorioretinitis, cotton-wool spots, vascular occlusions, and retinal vasculitis.90


Susac syndrome is an occlusive arteriolar disease characterized by infarcts in the retina, cochlea, and brain. Findings include recurrent multifocal branch retinal artery occlusions, sensorineural hearing loss, and neuropsychiatric abnormalities. A patient with scleroderma who developed all the features of Susac syndrome was recently reported (Fig. 11).93

Fig. 11. Patient with scleroderma and Susac syndrome. Note the retinal edema inferior to the fovea from a branch retinal artery occlusion. A cotton-wool spot can be seen along the superotemporal artery. No cells were present in the vitreous.


Systemic vasculitis is a part of the extraintestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The vasculitis can affect the brain, skin, and lungs. The eye may be involved, although retinal vasculitis is rare. Previously reported retinal findings include venous sheathing with retinal edema, venous dilatation and tortuosity, and vessel attenuation with sheathing of the retinal arteries.94–96 Fluorescein angiography shows diffuse venous leakage with areas of retinal ischemia. A possible pathogenic mechanism is inflammatory microvascular occlusion associated with the vasculitis.94


The systemic necrotizing vasculitides are distinguished by their clinical presentation, the size of vessels involved, and the type of cellular infiltrate (Table 1).


TABLE 1. Characteristics of Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis

DiseaseVessel InvolvedOrgans Involved
Wegener's granulomatosisMedium and small arteries, venules, some capillariesRespiratory tract, kidneys
Polyarteritis nodosaMedium and small arteriesKidney, widespread organ involvement except lung
Churg-Strauss syndromeSmall arteries and veinsLungs, heart, kidney, intestine, peripheral nerves
Lymphomatoid granulomatosisSmall arteries and veinsPulmonary lymphadenopathy, CNS, skin, kidney
Giant cell arteritisLarge arteriesCNS, joints, aorta
Takayasu's diseaseLarger arteriesAortic arch
Hypersensitivity vasculitisVenulesSkin, CNS, kidneys
Leukocytoclastic vasculitisSmall venulesSkin

CNS, central nervous system


Wegener's Granulomatosis

Wegener's granulomatosis is a disease of unknown cause characterized by granulomatous inflammation and necrotizing vasculitis of the respiratory tract and kidneys.97 Ocular manifestations occur in 30% to 60% of patients, with retinal vasculature involvement in 7% to 18% of patients.98 The disease affects men more frequently than women, with a high percentage of patients being positive for the anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody.99 This antibody has a high sensitivity and specificity, making it useful as a marker for disease activity.100 Focal retinal infarctions, major vascular occlusions, disseminated retinitis, and severe posterior uveitis mimicking Eales' and Behçet's disease have been reported.98 Bilateral cotton-wool spots have also been reported as an initial ocular manifestation; this finding has been interpreted as focal retinal inflammatory vasculitis.101 Histopathologic features include inflammation of small and medium-sized vessels, necrosis, and granuloma formation.21

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa is more common in males (3:1) and usually occurs in the second to fifth decade of life. It can affect any organ system except the lung. Ocular involvement is relatively uncommon, occurring in 10% to 20% of patients, and can present as a bilateral iritis, vitritis, and retinal vasculitis.102 Usually only the arteries are affected, with the adjacent veins occasionally involved by extension of the inflammation from the contiguously affected artery. Choroidal vasculitis is a more common manifestation of polyarteritis nodosa.102,103 Papilledema or papillitis may occur due to optic nerve vascular involvement.21 Fluorescein angiography may show delayed choroidal filling, staining of the involved arterial segments, or thrombosis of the retinal veins.102

Churg-Strauss Syndrome

Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatous angiitis) is a progressive multisystemic necrotizing vasculitis that primarily affects the lungs. Its salient features include a history of bronchial asthma, hypereosinophilia, and cardiac and peripheral nervous system involvement.104,105 Ocular manifestations, although uncommon, include conjunctival granulomas, marginal corneal ulceration, cranial nerve palsies, retinal emboli, and optic disc vasculitis.106 The necrotizing vasculitis affects small arteries and veins, and eosinophils are the predominant inflammatory cell.107 The vascular lesions may involve the central or branch retinal arteries, the choroidal plexus, or the posterior ciliary arteries, causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and scattered areas of retinal infarction.108,109

Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly affecting the lungs. It is distinguished histopathologically from Wegener's granulomatosis by its angiodestructive infiltration by lymphocytes, plasmacytoid cells, histiocytes, and atypical reticuloendothelial cells. Peripheral retinal vasculitis of arterioles and venules, vascular occlusions, diffuse vascular sheathing in the posterior pole, and pallid disc edema have been reported.98,110,111 One study suggested that Epstein-Barr virus may play a role in the evolution of angiocentric immunoproliferative disorders such as lymphomatoid granulomatosis into malignant lymphoma.112

Giant Cell Arteritis

Giant cell arteritis is a segmental vasculitis usually affecting elderly patients. It is a granulomatous panarteritis that may involve large and medium-sized arteries in almost any organ system in the body.113 The most commonly affected vessels are the superficial temporal, vertebral, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries. Ischemic retinal changes result primarily from damage to large extraocular vessels and not from direct retinal vascular involvement. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common cause of visual loss in patients with giant cell arteritis.114 Inflammation or thrombosis of the ophthalmic artery or central retinal artery may reduce the blood flow in retinal arterioles and may lead to the development of branch retinal artery occlusion.114 Cotton-wool spots have also been reported as an early ophthalmoscopic finding.115

Takayasu's Disease

Takayasu's disease is a life-threatening, idiopathic, large vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its major branches.113 It usually occurs in young women. Ocular changes have been reported in 60% to 67% of patients.116,117 Retinal findings, depending on the stage of the disease, can include dilated and tortuous vessels, microaneurysms, arteriovenous anastomosis, and vitreous hemorrhage with proliferative retinopathy that can mimic severe diabetic retinopathy.118

Drug-Induced Vasculitis

Drug-induced vasculitis represents a diverse group of systemic conditions that predominantly involve small vessels (usually venules) and have a recognizable precipitating event. It usually occurs 7 to 10 days after exposure, but it can also occur months after initial drug use, or even after the drug has been withdrawn.119 There is evidence to suggest that it is mediated by immune complex deposition. Fundus findings can include retinal and macular edema, disc hyperemia, venous congestion, vascular sheathing, and retinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography may show delayed filling of the veins in the affected retina, with late staining.119 Drugs reported to cause retinal vasculitis include methamphetamines,120,121 hormones for infertility and contraception,119 and procainamide, which induces a lupus-like syndrome.122

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is an entity most commonly associated with connective tissue diseases and usually affects postcapillary venules less than 0.1 mm in diameter.123 Typical histopathologic features include vessel wall inflammation, swelling of the endothelial cells, necrosis and fibrin in the wall, and nuclear dusting or fragmentation of neutrophils (leukocytoclasis) within the vessel wall. Frequently, purpura and urticaria occur. Ocular involvement is rare, and reported ocular manifestations include anterior uveitis, corneal ulceration, chemosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage.124–126 A case of bilateral panuveitis associated with multifocal retinitis and vasculitis has been reported.123 Fluorescein angiography in this patient demonstrated staining of the vessel walls in the posterior pole (Fig. 12).

Fig. 12. A. Cutaneous purpura-like lesions in a patient with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. B. Choroidal vasculitis in the same patient, as evidenced by white subretinal spots. Cells were present in the anterior chamber and in the vitreous.


Ocular involvement in systemic sarcoidosis has been reported in 25% to 54% of patients and is bilateral in more than 70% of cases.127–130 Anterior uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, occurring in about two thirds of patients.131 Inflammation of the posterior segment is less common and occurs in 6% to 33% of patients with sarcoidosis.127,132,133 Posterior segment changes include chorioretinal granulomas, chorioretinitis, retinal periphlebitis, macular edema, optic nerve edema, optic nerve granulomas, vitreous cellular infiltration (string of pearls and snowballs), and new vessel formation, either on the optic disc or elsewhere in the retina, as well as in the subretinal space.134

Periphlebitis is the most common retinal finding in sarcoidosis, with an incidence of 45% to 73%.135,136 Segmental sheathing or cuffing of venules is common, and periarterial sheathing is rarely observed.130 Although less common, the central retinal vein or one of its main tributaries may also become inflamed and subsequently occluded.137,138 Branch retinal vein occlusion is usually caused by thrombosis of the vein at the site of arteriovenous crossing or obstruction of the lumen by a choroidal granuloma.138–141 Obstruction of smaller peripheral venules may be associated with ischemia and neovascular membranes of the disc and peripheral retina.134,142 Fluorescein angiography may reveal focal perivenous leakage, often with optic disc leakage.

“Candle wax drippings” is a term used to describe the yellow-white, waxy retinal exudates that appear along retinal veins in the inferior equatorial retina and occasionally in the posterior pole. These exudates have been reported in 20% to 36% of cases of sarcoid retinopathy.135,136 Histopathologically, candle wax drippings and periphlebitis represent chorioretinal granulomas and perivascular accumulations of epithelioid cells and lymphocytes, respectively.143 Thus, candle wax drippings may be correctly termed granulomatous periphlebitis (Fig. 13).

Fig. 13. Granulomatous periphlebitis with candle wax drippings in a patient with sarcoid.


Behçet's disease is a multisystemic, episodic, inflammatory, occlusive arteriolar disease of unknown cause. The classic major criteria are aphthous stomatitis, aphthous genital ulcers, and hypopyon uveitis. Minor criteria include arthralgias, gastroenteritis, epididymitis, vascular occlusions, thrombophlebitis, and neuropsychiatric involvement. Ocular involvement is found in 70% to 85% and retinal lesions in up to 50% of patients.144,145 In 20% of patients, ocular disease is one of the initial manifestations.145 Retinal vasculitis is one of the criteria that can be used to make a diagnosis of complete Behçet's disease.

Commonly observed fundus lesions include hyperemia of the optic disc with blurring of the margins, macular edema, retinal edema, vascular sheathing (venous sheathing preceding arterial sheathing), retinal exudates, and retinal hemorrhage.146 Massive whitish-yellow exudate may accumulate in the deeper retinal layers during acute episodes, while the overlying retina shows turbidity and edema.146 Retinal atrophy commonly follows retinal exudate and hemorrhage. Optic atrophy is the second most common fundus finding after optic disc hyperemia.146 After repeated attacks, vascular sheathing, central retinal artery or vein occlusion, retinal neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and papilledema may develop. Silver-wired occluded vessels may be seen. In end-stage disease, retinal vessels may not be visible beyond the arcades, and a diffuse stippled retinal pigment epithelium pattern is present (Fig. 14).

Fig. 14. End-stage Behçet's disease in a Korean man. Note the pale disc and attenuated retinal vessels. Vision was very poor.

Fluorescein angiography during an acute attack shows marked capillary dilatation and hyperpermeability, diffuse dye leakage from small venules with resultant tissue staining, and secondary localized occlusions in the form of acute thromboangiitis obliterans.146 Leakage from larger vessels and the optic nerve head may be seen in the late stages of the disease.

The basic pathologic features are perivascular leukocytic infiltrates, endothelial cell proliferation with obliteration of the vascular lumen, thrombosis, and fibrinoid degeneration. It has been suggested that Behçet's disease is an immune-mediated occlusive vasculitis.147 Functional endothelial alteration has also been considered as a pathogenic mechanism.22 Recently, a possible association between Behçet's disease and viral infection, notably chronic hepatitis C infection, has been reported.148


Retinal periphlebitis has been observed in 8.5% to 44% of patients with multiple sclerosis.149–151 Severe occlusive peripheral vasculitis resulting in peripheral retinal neovascularization has been reported.152

Angiographically, dye leakage in the area of sheathing and late staining of the venous wall may be seen.153 Focal leakage on fluorescein angiography correlating with venous cuffing usually resolves in 4 to 6 months; diffuse leakage with late staining has a slower course of resolution and is considered a clinical marker of previous acute venous changes.153 Arteriolar involvement is uncommon.

An association between the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier on fluorescein angiography and the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier on Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of brain has been shown in several studies of patients with multiple sclerosis.154 Retinal periphlebitis has been considered a basic initial lesion for plaque formation in the central nervous system.154 Recently, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), a newly described beta-herpes virus that shares homology with cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be present in active plaques in the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis.155,156

Back to Top
Infectious diseases can cause a variety of retinal vascular findings (Table 2).


TABLE 2. Retinal Vascular Findings Associated With Infections

Bacterial endophthalmitisPeriphlebitis, cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages, Roth spots
TuberculosisPeriphlebitis, neovascularization
SyphilisPeriphlebitis, arterial and venous sheathing, preretinal hemorrhages, neovascularization
Fungal infectionsPeriphlebitis with or without waxy perivenous exudates, arterial sheathing, choroidal neovascularization
CytomegalovirusPeriphlebitis, frosted branch angiitis, arterial and venous sheathing, retinal hemorrhages
Herpes simplex/herpes zosterArteriolar and venular occlusions
Other viral infections (Rift Valley fever, influenza, infectious mono-nucleosis)Arterial and venous occlusions, arterial and venous sheating, retinal hemorrhages
ToxoplasmosisPeriphlebitis, venous sheathing, segmental periarteritis, vascular occlusions, retinal hemorrhages, Roth spots, choroidal neovascularization
NematodesPeriphlebitis, arteritis, arterial narrowing and sheathing
ParasitesArteritis, arteriolitis, vascular necrosis/thrombosis, cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages
Human immunodeficiency virusCotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms



Retinal periphlebitis has been described in early staphylococcal endophthalmitis and has been reproduced experimentally by intravitreal staphylococcal injections in monkeys.157 Retinal periphlebitis was found in 26 of 28 human autopsy eyes with bacterial endophthalmitis.158 Cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages, and Roth spots (white-centered hemorrhages) were observed in septic patients without intraocular inflammation and may represent infectious embolization to the retinal circulation.159,160


Periphlebitis is considered the most common retinal manifestation of tuberculosis.161 It is usually associated with peripheral capillary closure that may lead to ischemia and new vessel formation.162 The diagnosis of tuberculosis-related retinal vasculitis is presumptive and can be controversial. It is usually based on the clinical picture with a positive tuberculin skin test.163 The exclusion of other possible causes and a favorable response to antituberculosis medications support the diagnosis.163

The pathogenesis of tuberculosis-related retinal vasculitis is still unclear, but two mechanisms have been suggested.162,164 One mechanism involves an infectious process, wherein the tuberculous bacilli are directly responsible for the observed lesions. This mechanism seems probable when tubercles are present in the choroid. The alternative hypothesis suggests that hypersensitivity mechanisms are responsible for retinal vasculitis.162,164 The relation of tuberculous periphlebitis and Eales' disease must be considered.


Periphlebitis is mostly found in congenital syphilis and was the only vascular lesion in a case of acquired lues, mimicking a branch vein occlusion.165 Secondary syphilis can be accompanied by severe posterior uveitis. Retinal vasculitis usually accompanies syphilitic chorioretinitis.166,167 The vitreous may show a dense haze, and gray exudates may be seen in the posterior pole, along retinal vessels, and around the optic nerve head. Syphilis can also present as a necrotizing retinitis with marked sheathing of arteries and veins.168 Although uncommon, primary syphilitic vasculitis can occur, affecting both arteries and veins.169 It is associated with retinal and preretinal hemorrhages and neovascularization.


Rare viral infections associated with retinal vasculitis include influenza, infectious mononucleosis, and Rift Valley fever, which is an arthropod-borne viral infection of sheep and cattle that is spread by an insect bite. Macular retinitis and vascular occlusions secondary to proliferation of viral particles in vascular endothelial cells have been reported.170


Ocular toxoplasmosis typically causes a necrotizing retinitis with a reactive choroiditis. There may also be periphlebitis with or without venous obstruction, arteritis and arteriolar occlusions, retinal hemorrhages, and Roth spots.171–173 Yellow refractile deposits (segmental periarteritis) along the arteries in the posterior pole have been described.30,31,174 These plaques are numerous during the active stage of chorioretinitis and resolve as the inflammation subsides. The plaques do not obstruct blood flow and are on the outside of vessels. Diffuse perivenous sheathing has been observed in the vicinity of, as well as distant from, the chorioretinitis.


Rickettsia, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are obligate intracellular parasites with a preference for vascular endothelium.175 They primarily affect small arterioles, causing vessel wall necrosis, thrombosis, and hemorrhage. Ophthalmoscopic features of rickettsial infection include artery and vein occlusions with a clinical picture similar to Eales' disease.

Babesiosis is a rare tickborne intraerythrocytic parasitic disease similar to malaria. It is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, and hemolytic anemia. Splenectomized patients, elderly persons, and immunocompromised and HIV-infected patients are especially predisposed to infection with babesiosis.176 A case of babesiosis mimicking lupus retinopathy has been reported.177 It is believed that the cotton-wool spots observed were caused by immune complex-mediated retinal arteriolitis.

Hemorrhagic vasculitis with perivascular eosinophilic and plasma cell infiltrates has been observed in experimental onchocerciasis.178 Onchocerciasis-related eye disease is an important cause of blindness, especially in the forest-savanna mosaic areas of Nigeria.179 The onchocercarial-induced lesions that are responsible for visual impairment and blindness are chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease.179

Giardia lamblia, an intestinal parasite, has also been associated with iridocyclitis, vitritis, and patchy retinal arteritis.180


Retinal microvasculopathy, the most common ocular manifestation of HIV infection, occurs in up to 70% of patients.181 The most common clinical presentation of retinal microvasculopathy is cotton-wool spots, reported in 26% to 53% of cases.182 Cotton-wool spots may be associated with other microvascular abnormalities, such as superficial or deep retinal hemorrhages, white-centered retinal hemorrhages (Roth spots), microaneurysms, and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities.

Retinal microvasculopathy occurs with increasing frequency as the CD4 T-cell count decreases. The cause and pathogenesis of the microvasculopathy are uncertain, but it is likely that either direct infection of vascular endothelial cells by HIV, immune complex deposition in retinal arterioles, or both, are involved.182 Endothelin-1, a cytokine with a potent vasoconstriction activity, has also been considered to play a role in its pathogenesis.183 Coinfection with hepatitis C virus has also been proposed as a precipitating factor for the development of HIV microangiopathy.184 Periphlebitis has been reported in a few patients with HIV infection.185–187

Back to Top
Previously reported cases of retinal vasculitis found in cancer patients were attributed to secondary opportunistic infection. However, there are numerous reports of perivasculitis in patients with lymphocytic tumors in the absence of opportunistic infection that resolve with radiation therapy.188,189 Intraocular lymphoma has been reported in up to 25% of cases of central nervous system lymphoma.190 Pathologic specimens from both eye and brain have demonstrated a characteristic pattern of angiocentric involvement.191 This is visible ophthalmoscopically as a periphlebitis or sheathing of both retinal arteries and veins. This is clearly inflammatory in origin in some cases, but occasionally it represents vessel wall invasion by tumor cells.192,193 Chronic diffuse vitritis, choroiditis, and a subretinal mass may also be seen.192,193
Back to Top
Patients with more than one disease that can compromise the retinal vasculature can have a more severe course than patients with only one disease.194,195 Thus, patients who are diabetic and who have sickle cell disease may have a worse prognosis than patients without a second vascular problem.
Back to Top
In attempting to determine the cause of retinal vasculitis, clues can be obtained from the history, physical examination, and laboratory tests (Table 3).


TABLE 3. Diagnostic Evaluation of Retinal Vasculitis

  Past illnesses
  Racial background; sarcoidosis, Beh<acc>et's disease
  Travel history: parasitic infestation
  Presence of pets: toxoplasmosis
  Conditions leading to immunosuppression: AIDS, viral retinitis
  Ocular Examination
  Anterior segment: cornea, anterior chamber
  Posterior segment
  Vitreous cells
  Retinal vascular sheathing
  Macular edema
  Chorioretinal inflammation
  Retinal hemorrhage, neovascularization, cotton-wool spots
  Laboratory Investigations
  Immunologic studies
  Autoantibodies (ANA, ANCA, anti-phospholipin, anti-monocyte cytoplasmic and anti-cardiolipin): SLE, Beh<acc>et's dermatomyositis, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidosis
  VDRL or RPR, FTA-ABS or MHA-TP: syphilis
  ELISA test: toxocariasis
  Serologic tests: toxoplasmosis, Lyme disease
  HLA typing: Beh<acc>et's disease, birdshot retinochoroidopathy
  Skin testing
  PPD: tuberculosis
  Radiologic studies
  Chest film: tuberculosis, sarcoidosis
  Gallium scan: sarcoidosis
  Computed tomography (brain): multiple sclerosis, CNS lupus, CNS sarcoidosis
  Computed tomography (chest): sarcoidosis
  Magnetic resonance imaging (brain): multiple sclerosis, CNS lupus, CNS sarcoidosis
  Miscellaneous tests
  Cultures: viral, bacterial, fungal
  Stool examination for ova and parasites
  Agglutinins: Rickettsiae infection
  Angiotensin converting enzyme: sarcoidosis
  Serum lysozyme: sarcoidosis
  Vitreous fluorophotometry: intermediate uveitis
  Surgical investigations
  Aqueous analysis
  Vitreous analysis: intermediate uveitis, viral retinitis, tumor
  Polymerase chain reaction-based assays of aqueous and vitreous for infectious retinitis
  Cytopathologic and flow cytometric analysis of vitreous for intraocular lymphoma
  Interleukin-10 level in the vitreous for intraocular lymphoma
  Conjunctival biopsy: sarcoidosis
  Choroidal biopsy: intermediate uveitis, viral retinitis, tumor


Physical examination is important in diagnosing systemic conditions such as Behçet's disease and connective tissue disease. The location of retinal vasculitis (central vs peripheral), the predominant vessel involved (artery vs vein), and the specific ocular features (e.g., necrotizing retinitis, granulomatous uveitis, vitreal snowballs) may suggest a specific diagnostic category.

Viral, fungal, and blood cultures can be useful in the evaluation of immunosuppressed patients with retinal vasculitis. Immunologic studies such as autoantibody tests (anti-nuclear, anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic, anti-monocyte cytoplasmic, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), VDRL and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption tests, and HLA typing are important in diagnosing collagen vascular disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, ulcerative colitis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, toxocariasis, syphilis, and Behçet's disease.196,197

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vitreous samples may be used to diagnose viral, bacterial, and fungal infection. PCR-based assays of aqueous and vitreous samples are specific and sensitive in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with infectious retinitis.198,199 Vitreoretinal and sclerochorioretinal biopsies provide tissue for light and electron microscopic studies, immunohistochemical techniques, and tissue cultures in cases of viral retinitis, acute retinal necrosis, and disorders of unknown cause (e.g., birdshot retinochoroidopathy).185 Agglutination tests have been used in rickettsial infections.

Radiologic studies such as chest films aid in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. Computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain may detect cerebrovascular lesions in multiple sclerosis, neurosarcoid, and central nervous system lupus.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the vitreous may also be obtained in patients suspected of having intraocular lymphoma, because they may correlate with clinical activity and the number of malignant cells.200 An IL-10 to interleukin-6 (IL-6) ratio greater than 1.0 in the vitreous or cerebrospinal fluid is a useful predictor of the presence of lymphoma cells, but an elevated ratio is not always associated with intraocular/central nervous system lymphoma.201,202 Cytopathologic and flow cytometric analysis of vitreous cellular specimens is used in the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma.203

Back to Top
Systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for retinal vasculitis. They are indicated in the treatment of posterior segment involvement with sarcoidosis, SLE, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Patients with frosted branch angiitis have responded well to systemic corticosteroids.71 Two patients with central retinal artery occlusion secondary to giant cell arteritis recovered baseline visual acuity after treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone.204 Corticosteroids have also been used in Eales' disease, optic disc vasculitis, and multiple sclerosis, but their value in these diseases has not been proven.

Although corticosteroids reduce inflammation, the risks may outweigh the benefits if central vision is not threatened. In optic disc vasculitis (papillophlebitis), the disease tends to follow a benign course even if untreated.

There are several diseases in which steroids are either contraindicated (viral and fungal retinitis) or ineffective alone ( Behçet's disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa). Cytotoxic agents such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, and azathioprine have been used with great success in the latter group. The use of cyclophosphamide combined with prednisone has been highly effective in up to 90% of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.205 High-dose short-term chlorambucil treatment has been successful for intractable, sightthreatening uveitis, without the development of systemic malignancy.206 In one study, cyclosporin administration resulted in improvement in 15 of 16 patients with uveitis ( Behçet's disease, pars planitis, sarcoidosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, and birdshot retinochoroidopathy) resistant to both corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents.207 Renal toxicity is the major drawback to broader acceptance of this drug. FK 506 (tacrolimus) has also been used in refractory uveitis associated with Behçet's disease.208 Recently, interferon alpha has been used in patients with Behçet's disease, with lack of significant systemic and ocular side effects.209–211

Infectious retinitis must be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. The addition of corticosteroids to temper inflammatory damage must be done cautiously.

Nonmedical therapy may be necessary in certain cases of retinal vasculitis. Laser photocoagulation is effective in the treatment of retinal neovascularization in many conditions, including Eales' disease, sarcoidosis, and SLE. Vitrectomy and scleral buckling may be done for persistent vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment caused by the retinal vascular inflammation.

Neovascularization can occur at the disc or in the periphery as a complication of retinal vasculitis. Because neovascularization can lead to devastating hemorrhages and tractional retinal detachments, neovascularization should not be neglected.49 Inflammatory-induced neovascularization often responds to anti-inflammatory therapy such as high-dose oral corticosteroids, which should be the first-line therapy. If there is no regression of the neovascularization after 3 to 4 weeks of anti-inflammatory therapy, then laser therapy to the ischemic areas should be considered.

Back to Top

1. Graham E, Spalton DJ, Sanders MD. Immunological investigations in retinal vasculitis. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1981;101:12–16

2. Vinje O, Moller P, Mellbye J. Immunological variables and acute-phase reactants in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew's syndrome) and their relatives. Clin Rheumatol 1984;3:501–513

3. Lehner T, Almeida JD, Levinsky RJ. Damaged membrane fragments and immune complexes in the blood of patients with Behçet's syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 1978;34:206– 212

4. Oniki S, Inoue Y, Kawata K. Ocular Arthus reaction with reference to immunologic retinal vasculitis: Its possible relation to Behçet's disease. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1976;20:41

5. O'Connor GR. Factors related to the initiation and recurrence of uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96:577–599

6. Dumonde DC, Kasp-Grochowska E, Banga JP et al. Autoimmune mechanisms in inflammatory eye disease. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1985;104:232–238

7. Kasp E, Graham EM, Stanford MR et al. A point prevalence study of 150 patients with idiopathic retinal vasculitis: 2. Clinical relevance of antiretinal autoimmunity and circulating immune complexes. Br J Ophthalmol 1989;73:722– 730

8. Haynes B, Fauci A. Disorders of the immune system. In Isselbacher K, Braunwald E, Wilson J et al (eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, p 1774. Vol 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998

9. Thirkill C, Roth A, Keltner J. Cancer-associated retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1987;105:372–375

10. Brasile L, Kremer JM, Clarke JL, Cerilli J. Identification of an autoantibody to vascular endothelial cell-specific antigens in patients with systemic vasculitis. Am J Med 1989; 87:74–80

11. Del Papa N, Conforti G, Gambini D et al. Characterization of the endothelial surface proteins recognized by anti-endothelial antibodies in primary and secondary autoimmune vasculitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1994;70:211–216

12. Ferraro G, Meroni PL, Tincani A et al. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and micropolyarteritis. Clin Exp Immunol 1990;79:47–53

13. Savage CO, Pottinger BE, Gaskin G et al. Vascular damage in Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis: Presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies and their relation to anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies. Clin Exp Immunol 1991;85:14–19

14. Edelsten C, D'Cruz D, Hughes GR, Graham EM. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in retinal vasculitis. Curr Eye Res 1992;11:203–208

15. Kallenberg CG. Autoantibodies in vasculitis: Current perspectives [editorial]. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993;11:355–360

16. Sneller MC, Fauci AS. Pathogenesis of vasculitis syndromes. Med Clin North Am 1997;81:221–242

17. Falk RJ, Terrell RS, Charles LA, Jennette JC. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies induce neutrophils to degranulate and produce oxygen radicals in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:4115–4119

18. Thomas PD, Hunninghake GW. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135:747–760

19. Nussenblatt RB, Gery I, Ballintine EJ, Wacker WB. Cellular immune responsiveness of uveitis patients to retinal S-antigen. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;89:173–179

20. Youn J, Belehradek J, Quang T. Natural killer cell activity in patients with uveitis. In O'Connor G, Chandler J (eds). Advances in Immunology and Immunopathology of the Eye, p 246. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1985

21. Abu El-Asrar A, Tabbara K. Retinal vasculitis. Curr Opinion Ophthalmol 1997;8:68–79

22. Pivetti-Pezzi P, Priori R, Catarinelli G et al. Markers of vascular injury in Behçet's disease associated with retinal vasculitis. Ann Ophthalmol 1992;24:411–414

23. Malinowski SM, Pulido JS, Goeken NE et al. The association of HLA-B8, B51, DR2, and multiple sclerosis in pars planitis. Ophthalmology 1993;100:1199–1205

24. Bloch-Michel E, Frau E. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy and HLA-A29+ and HLA-A29- idiopathic retinal vasculitis: Comparative study of 56 cases. Can J Ophthalmol 1991; 26:361–366

25. Wise G, Dollery C, Henkind P. Clinical and microscopic features of retinal lesions. In Wise G, Dollery C, Henkind P (eds). The Retinal Circulation, pp 203–210. New York: Harper & Row, 1971

26. Sanders MD. Retinal vasculitis: A review. J R Soc Med 1979;72:908–915

27. Karpik AG, Schwartz MM, Dickey LE et al. Ocular immune reactants in patients dying with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1985;35:295–312

28. Pepose JS, Holland GN, Nestor MS et al. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of ocular disease. Ophthalmology 1985;92:472–484

29. Kincaid J, Schatz H. Bilateral retinal arteritis with multiple aneurysmal dilatations. Retina 1983;3:171–178

30. Klein B. Retinal lesions associated with uveal disease: I. Am J Ophthalmol 1956;42:831–847

31. Griffin A, Bodian M. Segmental retinal periarteritis. Am J Ophthalmol 1959;47:544–548

32. Orzalesi N, Ricciardi L. Segmental retinal periarteritis. Am J Ophthalmol 1971;72:55–59

33. Jampol LM, Isenberg SJ, Goldberg MF. Occlusive retinal arteriolitis with neovascularization. Am J Ophthalmol 1976; 81:583–589

34. Eales H. Cases of retinal hemorrhage associated with epistaxis and constipation. Birmingham Med Rev 1880;9: 262–273

35. Murphy R, Gieser S, Fine S. Retinal and vitreous findings in Eales' disease. Invest Ophthalmol (Suppl) 1986;27:121

36. Murphy R, Renie W, Proctor L et al. A survey of patients with Eales' disease. In Fine S, Owens S (eds). Management of Retinal Vascular and Macular Disorders, pp 28–31. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983

37. Das T, Biswas J, Kumar A et al. Eales' disease. Indian J Ophthalmol 1994;42:3–18

38. Bhooma V, Sulochana KN, Biswas J, Ramakrishnan S. Eales' disease: Accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxides and decrease of antioxidants causing inflammation, neovascularization and retinal damage. Curr Eye Res 1997;16:91–95

39. Spitznas M, Meyer-Schwickerath G, Stephan B. The clinical picture of Eales' disease. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 1975;194:73–85

40. Elliot AJ. 30-year observation of patients with Eales' disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1975;80:404–408

41. Theodossiadis G. Fluorescein angiography in Eales' disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1970;69:271–277

42. Loewenstein A, Michelson I, Hill J. Retinal vasculitis of the young. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1946;66:211–230

43. Elliot A. Recurrent intraocular hemorrhage in young adults (Eales' disease): A report of thirty-one cases. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1954;52:811–875

44. Verhoeff F, Simpson G. Tubercle within central retinal vein. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;24:645

45. Johnson G, Block K. Immunoglobulin levels in retinal vascular abnormalities in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Arch Ophthalmol 1969;81:322–324

46. Muthukkaruppan V, Rengarajan K, Chakkalath H. Immunological status of patients with Eales' disease. Indian J Med Res 1989;90:351–359

47. Koliopoulos J, Perkins E, Seitanides B. Serum immunoglobulins in retinal vasculitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1970;54:233–236

48. Andrews BS, McIntosh J, Petts V, Penny R. Circulating immune complexes in retinal vasculitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1977;29:23–29

49. Palmer HE, Stanford MR, Sanders MD, Graham EM. Visual outcome of patients with idiopathic ischaemic and non-ischaemic retinal vasculitis. Eye 1996;10:343–348

50. Gass A, Graham E, Moseley IF et al. Cranial MRI in idiopathic retinal vasculitis. J Neurol 1995;242:174–177

51. Karma A, Seppala I, Mikkila H et al. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;119:127–135

52. Leys AM, Schonherr U, Lang GE et al. Retinal vasculitis in Lyme borreliosis. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 1995; 259:205–214

53. Soheilian M, Markomichelakis N, Foster CS. Intermediate uveitis and retinal vasculitis as manifestations of cat scratch disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;122:582–584

54. Hayreh SS. Optic disc vasculitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1972; 56:652–670

55. Bienfait MF, Baarsma GS, Wijngaarde R. Ten cases of optic vasculitis. Doc Ophthalmol 1986;64:225–232

56. Fong AC, Schatz H. Central retinal vein occlusion in young adults [published erratum appears in Surv Ophthalmol 1993 Jul-Aug;38(1):88]. Surv Ophthalmol 1993;37:393–417

57. Tessler H. What is intermediate uveitis? In Ernest J (ed). Yearbook of Ophthalmology, p 155. Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1985

58. Gorman B, Mines J, Coles R. Vasculitis associated with intermediate uveitis. Acta Ophthalmol (Suppl) 1984;163:59

59. Pruett RC, Brockhurst J, Letts NF. Fluorescein angiography of peripheral uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;77:448–453

60. Chester GH, Blach RK, Cleary PE. Inflammation in the region of the vitreous base. Pars planitis. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1976;96:151–157

61. Brockhurst R, Schepens C, Okamura I. Peripheral uveitis: Clinical description, complications, and differential diagnosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1960;49:1257–1266

62. Smith RE, Godfrey WA, Kimura SJ. Chronic cyclitis. I. Course and visual prognosis. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1973;77:OP760–768

63. Pederson JE, Kenyon KR, Green WR, Maumenee AE. Pathology of pars planitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86: 762–774

64. Hayreh SS. So-called acute retinal necrosis syndrome—an acute ocular panvasculitis syndrome. Dev Ophthalmol 1985;10:40–77

65. Gartry DS, Spalton DJ, Tilzey A, Hykin PG. Acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 1991;75:292–297

66. Culbertson WW, Blumenkranz MS, Pepose JS et al. Varicella zoster virus is a cause of the acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Ophthalmology 1986;93:559–569

67. Culbertson WW, Blumenkranz MS, Haines H et al. The acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Part 2: Histopathology and etiology. Ophthalmology 1982;89:1317–1325

68. Rungger-Brandle E, Roux L, Leuenberger PM. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis (BARN). Identification of the presumed infectious agent. Ophthalmology 1984;91:1648–1658

69. Batisse D, Eliaszewicz M, Zazoun L et al. Acute retinal necrosis in the course of AIDS: Study of 26 cases. AIDS 1996;10:55–60

70. Garweg J, Bohnke M. Varicella-zoster virus is strongly associated with atypical necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:603–608

71. Kleiner RC, Kaplan HJ, Shakin JL et al. Acute frosted retinal periphlebitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;106:27–34

72. Sugin SL, Henderly DE, Friedman SM et al. Unilateral frosted branch angiitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111:682–685

73. Rabb MF, Jampol LM, Fish RH et al. Retinal periphlebitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with cytomegalovirus retinitis mimics acute frosted retinal periphlebitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1992;110:1257–1260

74. Chang TS, Aylward GW, Davis JL et al. Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuro-retinitis. Retinal Vasculitis Study. Ophthalmology 1995;102:1089–1097

75. Lam S, Tessler H. “New stuff” in uveitis. Ophthalmology Clin North Am 1993;6:81–95

76. Bergink GJ, Ooyman FM, Maas S, Rademakers AJ. Three HLA-A29 positive patients with uveitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1996;74:81–83

77. Groothuis DR, Mikhael MA. Focal cerebral vasculitis associated with circulating immune complexes and brain irradiation. Ann Neurol 1986;19:590–592

78. Hahn B. Systemic lupus erythematosus. In Isselbacher K, Braunwald E, Wilson J et al (eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, pp 1643–1648. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994

79. Gold D, Feiner L, Henkind P. Retinal arterial occlusive disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Ophthalmol 1977;95:1580–1585

80. Coppeto J, Lessell S. Retinopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Ophthalmol 1977;95:794–797

81. Quillen DA, Stathopoulos NA, Blankenship GW, Ferriss JA. Lupus associated frosted branch periphlebitis and exudative maculopathy. Retina 1997;17:449–451

82. Jabs D. The rheumatic diseases. In Ryan S, Schachat A, Murphy R, Patz A (eds). Retina, pp 457–480. St Louis: Mosby, 1989

83. Jabs DA, Fine SL, Hochberg MC et al. Severe retinal vaso-occlusive disease in systemic lupus erythematous. Arch Ophthalmol 1986;104:558–563

84. Coppeto JR, Currie JN, Monteiro ML, Lessell S. A syndrome of arterial-occlusive retinopathy and encephalopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1984;98:189–202

85. Asherson RA, Merry P, Acheson JF et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies: A risk factor for occlusive ocular vascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus and the “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 1989;48: 358–361

86. Diddie KR, Aronson AJ, Ernest JT. Chorioretinopathy in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1977;75:122–131

87. Matsuo T, Koyama T, Morimoto N et al. Retinal vasculitis as a complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Ophthalmologica 1990;201:196–200

88. Giordano N, D'Ettorre M, Biasi G et al. Retinal vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis: An angiographic study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1990;8:121–125

89. Cohen BH, Sedwick LA, Burde RM. Retinopathy of dermatomyositis. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1985;5:177–179

90. Isaak BL, Liesegang TJ, Michet CJ Jr. Ocular and systemic findings in relapsing polychondritis. Ophthalmology 1986; 93:681–689

91. Backhouse O, Griffiths B, Henderson T, Emery P. Ophthalmic manifestations of dermatomyositis. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:447–449

92. Zeuner M, Straub RH, Rauh G et al. Relapsing polychondritis: Clinical and immunogenetic analysis of 62 patients. J Rheumatol 1997;24:96–101

93. Sahin O, Goldstein D, Tessler H. Findings typical of Susac's syndrome in a patient with scleroderma. Retina 1999; 19:476–477

94. Garcia-Diaz M, Mira M, Nevado L et al. Retinal vasculitis associated with Crohn's disease. Postgrad Med J 1995;71: 170–172

95. Kelly IM, Frith PA, Hyman NM, Jewell DP. Retinal periphlebitis in ulcerative colitis. Postgrad Med J 1990;66: 565–567

96. Duker JS, Brown GC, Brooks L. Retinal vasculitis in Crohn's disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1987;103:664–668

97. Li CG, Reynolds I, Ponting JM et al. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are markedly elevated in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Br J Rheumatol 1998;37:1303–1306

98. Robin JB, Schanzlin DJ, Meisler DM et al. Ocular involvement in the respiratory vasculitides. Surv Ophthalmol 1985;30:127–140

99. Rao JK, Weinberger M, Oddone EZ et al. The role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) testing in the diagnosis of Wegener granulomatosis. A literature review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:925–932

100. Cohen Tervaert JW, van der Woude FJ, Fauci AS et al. Association between active Wegener's granulomatosis and anticytoplasmic antibodies. Arch Intern Med 1989;149: 2461–2465

101. Mangouritsas G, Ulbig M. Cotton-wool spots as the initial ocular manifestation in Wegener's granulomatosis. Ger J Ophthalmol 1994;3:68–70

102. Morgan CM, Foster CS, D'Amico DJ, Gragoudas ES. Retinal vasculitis in polyarteritis nodosa. Retina 1986;6:205–209

103. Akova YA, Jabbur NS, Foster CS. Ocular presentation of polyarteritis nodosa. Clinical course and management with steroid and cytotoxic therapy. Ophthalmology 1993;100: 1775–1781

104. Kozak M, Gill EA, Green LS. The Churg-Strauss syndrome. A case report with angiographically documented coronary involvement and a review of the literature. Chest 1995; 107:578–580

105. Hellemans S, Dens J, Knockaert D. Coronary involvement in the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Heart 1997;77:576–578

106. Weinstein JM, Chui H, Lane S et al. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatous angiitis). Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101:1217–1220

107. Spencer W (ed). Ophthalmic Pathology: An Atlas and Textbook. Vol 4. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996

108. Vitali C, Genovesi-Ebert F, Romani A et al. Ophthalmological and neuro-ophthalmological involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome: A case report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1996;234:404–408

109. Laroche L, Saraux H, Pelosse B, Brissaud P. [Chorioretinal involvement in Churg-Strauss angiitis]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1986;86:757–760

110. Tse DT, Mandelbaum S, Chuck DA et al. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis with ocular involvement. Retina 1985;5: 94–97

111. Forman S, Rosenbaum PS. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis presenting as an isolated unilateral optic neuropathy. A clinicopathologic report. J Neuroophthalmol 1998;18: 150–152

112. Medeiros LJ, Jaffe ES, Chen YY, Weiss LM. Localization of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in angiocentric immunoproliferative lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 1992;16:439–447

113. Hunder GG, Bloch DA, Michel BA et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:1122–1128

114. Fineman MS, Savino PJ, Federman JL, Eagle RC Jr. Branch retinal artery occlusion as the initial sign of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;122:428–430

115. Melberg NS, Grand MG, Dieckert JP et al. Cotton-wool spots and the early diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology 1995;102:1611–1614

116. Sagar S, Kar S, Gupta A, Sharma BK. Ocular changes in Takayasu's arteritis in India. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1994;38: 97–102

117. Fauci A. The vasculitis syndrome. In Braunwald E, Wilson J, Martin J et al (eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, pp 1677–1678. New York: Mosby, 1994

118. Bodker FS, Tessler HH, Shapiro MJ. Ocular complications of Takayasu's disease in a Hispanic woman [letter]. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:676–677

119. Rock T, Dinar Y, Romem M. Retinal periphlebitis after hormonal treatment. Ann Ophthalmol 1989;21:75–76

120. Shaw HE Jr, Lawson JG, Stulting RD. Amaurosis fugax and retinal vasculitis associated with methamphetamine inhalation. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1985;5:169–176

121. Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M et al. Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1970; 283:1003–1011

122. Nichols CJ, Mieler WF. Severe retinal vaso-occlusive disease secondary to procainamide-induced lupus. Ophthalmology 1989;96:1535–1540

123. Tsai JC, Forster DJ, Ober RR, Rao NA. Panuveitis and multifocal retinitis in a patient with leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1993;77:318–320

124. Corwin JM, Baum J. Iridocyclitis in two patients with hypocomplementemic cutaneous vasculitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1982;94:111–113

125. Ryan LM, Kozin F, Eiferman R. Immune complex uveitis: A case. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:62–63

126. Doutre MS, Beylot C, Morel P et al. [Ophthalmologic manifestations of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Apropos of 3 case reports]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1986;113:419–425

127. Jabs DA, Johns CJ. Ocular involvement in chronic sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;102:297–301

128. Thorne JE, Galetta SL. Disc edema and retinal periphlebitis as the initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. Arch Neurol 1998;55:862–863

129. Karma A, Huhti E, Poukkula A. Course and outcome of ocular sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;106:467–472

130. Ohara K, Okubo A, Sasaki H, Kamata K. Intraocular manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1992;36:452–457

131. Nussenblatt R, Whitcup S, Palestine A. Uveitis: Fundamentals and Clinical Practice. Bethesda: Mosby, 1996

132. Obenauf CD, Shaw HE, Sydnor CF, Klintworth GK. Sarcoidosis and its ophthalmic manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86:648–655

133. James DG, Neville E, Langley DA. Ocular sarcoidosis. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1976;96:133–139

134. Duker JS, Brown GC, McNamara JA. Proliferative sarcoid retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1988;95:1680–1686

135. Spalton DJ, Sanders MD. Fundus changes in histologically confirmed sarcoidosis. Br J Ophthalmol 1981;65:348–358

136. Mizuno K, Takahashi J. Sarcoid cyclitis. Ophthalmology 1986;93:511–517

137. Ohara K, Okubo A, Sasaki H, Kamata K. Branch retinal vein occlusion in a child with ocular sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;119:806–807

138. Kimmel AS, McCarthy MJ, Blodi CF, Folk JC. Branch retinal vein occlusion in sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1989;107:561–562

139. Denis P, Nordmann JP, Laroche L, Saraux H. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with a sarcoid choroidal granuloma [letter]. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;113:333–334

140. Palmer HE, Stanford MR, McCartney AC, Graham EM. Non-caseating granulomas as a cause of ischaemic retinal vasculitis [letter]. Br J Ophthalmol 1997;81:1018–1019

141. DeRosa AJ, Margo CE, Orlick ME. Hemorrhagic retinopathy as the presenting manifestation of sarcoidosis. Retina 1995;15:422–427

142. Sanders MD, Shilling JS. Retinal, choroidal, and optic disc involvement in sarcoidosis. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1976;96:140–144

143. Gass JD, Olson CL. Sarcoidosis with optic nerve and retinal involvement. A clinicopathologic case report. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1973;77:OP739–750

144. Michelson JB, Chisari FV. Behçet's disease. Surv Ophthalmol 1982;26:190–203

145. Mishima S, Masuda K, Izawa Y et al. Behçet's disease in Japan: Ophthalmologic aspects. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1979;77:225–279

146. Atmaca LS. Fundus changes associated with Behçet's disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1989;227:340–344

147. Inoue T, Oniki S, Kajiyama K, Jimi S. Circulating immune complexes in Behçet's disease. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1983; 27:35–39

148. Munke H, Stockmann F, Ramadori G. Possible association between Behçet's syndrome and chronic hepatitis C virus infection [letter]. N Engl J Med 1995;332:400–401

149. Porter R. Uveitis in association with multiple sclerosis. Br J Ophthalmol 1972;56:478–481

150. Younge BR. Fluorescein angiography and retinal venous sheathing in multiple sclerosis. Can J Ophthalmol 1976; 11:31–36

151. Engell T, Hvidberg A, Uhrenholdt A. Multiple sclerosis: Periphlebitis retinalis et cerebro-spinalis. A correlation between periphlebitis retinalis and abnormal technetium brain scintigraphy. Acta Neurol Scand 1984;69:293–297

152. Vine AK. Severe periphlebitis, peripheral retinal ischemia, and preretinal neovascularization in patients with multiple sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;113:28–32

153. Birch MK, Barbosa S, Blumhardt LD et al. Retinal venous sheathing and the blood-retinal barrier in multiple sclerosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114:34–39

154. Ronzani M, Lang GE, Wagner P, Lang GK. Severe occlusive retinal periphlebitis with vitreous hemorrhage in multiple sclerosis. Ger J Ophthalmol 1995;4:328–331

155. Soldan SS, Berti R, Salem N et al. Association of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) with multiple sclerosis: Increased IgM response to HHV-6 early antigen and detection of serum HHV-6 DNA. Nat Med 1997;3:1394–1397

156. Fillet AM, Lozeron P, Agut H et al. HHV-6 and multiple sclerosis. Nat Med 1998;4:537–538

157. Packer AJ, Weingeist TA, Abrams GW. Retinal periphlebitis as an early sign of bacterial endophthalmitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96:66–71

158. Lamb H. The retina in septic and chronic endophthalmitis of ectogenous origin. Am J Ophthalmol 1939;22:258–266

159. King LP, Libby C, Coats DK, Lee WH. Presumed septic emboli following dental extraction. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1993;231:667–668

160. Weissgold DJ, Decker PJ. Retinal hemorrhages from septic emboli in a patient with a ventricular false chorda. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;122:117–119

161. Fountain JA, Werner RB. Tuberculous retinal vasculitis. Retina 1984;4:48–50

162. Rosen PH, Spalton DJ, Graham EM. Intraocular tuberculosis. Eye 1990;4:486–492

163. Reny JL, Challe G, Geisert P et al. Tuberculosis-related retinal vasculitis in an immunocompetent patient. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:873–874

164. Helm CJ, Holland GN. Ocular tuberculosis. Surv Ophthalmol 1993;38:229–256

165. Lobes LA Jr, Folk JC. Syphilitic phlebitis simulating branch vein occlusion. Ann Ophthalmol 1981;13:825–827

166. Ross WH, Sutton HF. Acquired syphilitic uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:496–498

167. Crouch ER Jr, Goldberg MF. Retinal periarteritis secondary to syphilis. Arch Ophthalmol 1975;93:384–387

168. Mendelsohn AD, Jampol LM. Syphilitic retinitis. A cause of necrotizing retinitis. Retina 1984;4:221–224

169. Morgan CM, Webb RM, O'Connor GR. Atypical syphilitic chorioretinitis and vasculitis. Retina 1984;4:225–231

170. Deutman AF, Klomp HJ. Rift Valley fever retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1981;92:38–42

171. Tabbara KF. Ocular toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1995;35:15–29

172. Hayashi S, Kim MK, Belfort R Jr. White-centered retinal hemorrhages in ocular toxoplasmosis. Retina 1997;17: 351–352

173. Gentile RC, Berinstein DM, Oppenheim R, Walsh JB. Retinal vascular occlusions complicating acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Can J Ophthalmol 1997;32:354–358

174. Schwartz PL. Segmental retinal periarteritis as a complication of toxoplasmosis. Ann Ophthalmol 1977;9:157–162

175. Raab EL, Leopold IH, Hodes HL. Retinopathy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Am J Ophthalmol 1969;68:42–46

176. Gorenflot A, Moubri K, Precigout E et al. Human babesiosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1998;92:489–501

177. Ortiz JM, Eagle RC Jr. Ocular findings in human babesiosis (Nantucket fever). Am J Ophthalmol 1982;93:307–311

178. Semba RD, Donnelly JJ, Rockey JH et al. Experimental ocular onchocerciasis in cynomolgus monkeys. II. Chorioretinitis elicited by intravitreal Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1988;29:1642–1651

179. Umeh RE, Chijioke CP, Okonkwo PO. Eye disease in an onchocerciasis-endemic area of the forest-savanna mosaic region of Nigeria. Bull World Health Organ 1996;74:95–100

180. Knox DL, King J Jr. Retinal arteritis, iridocyclitis, and giardiasis. Ophthalmology 1982;89:1303–1308

181. Woods SL, Wakefield D, McCluskey P. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Ocular findings and infection control guidelines. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol 1986;14:287–291

182. McCluskey PJ, Wakefield D. Posterior uveitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1995;35:1–14

183. Geier SA, Rolinski B, Sadri I et al. [Ocular microangiopathy syndrome in patients with AIDS is associated with increased plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1995;207:353–360

184. Thierfelder S, Linnert D, Grehn F. Increased prevalence of HIV-related retinal microangiopathy syndrome in patients with hepatitis C [letter]. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114:899

185. Kestelyn P, Van de Perre P, Rouvroy D et al. A prospective study of the ophthalmologic findings in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Africa. Am J Ophthalmol 1985;100:230–238

186. Kestelyn P, Lepage P, Van de Perre P. Perivasculitis of the retinal vessels as an important sign in children with AIDS-related complex. Am J Ophthalmol 1985;100:614–615

187. Kestelyn P, Van de Perre P, Sprecher-Goldberger S. Isolation of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III from aqueous humor in two patients with perivasculitis of the retinal vessels. Int Ophthalmol 1986;9:247–251

188. Barr CC, Joondeph HC. Retinal periphlebitis as the initial clinical finding in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Retina 1983;3:253–257

189. Lewis RA, Clark RB. Infiltrative retinopathy in systemic lymphoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1975;79:48–52

190. Char DH, Ljung BM, Miller T, Phillips T. Primary intraocular lymphoma (ocular reticulum cell sarcoma) diagnosis and management. Ophthalmology 1988;95:625–630

191. Gass JD, Trattler HL. Retinal artery obstruction and atheromas associated with non-Hodgkin's large cell lymphoma (reticulum cell sarcoma). Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109: 1134–1139

192. Brown SM, Jampol LM, Cantrill HL. Intraocular lymphoma presenting as retinal vasculitis. Surv Ophthalmol 1994; 39:133–140

193. Ormerod LD, Puklin JE. AIDS-associated intraocular lymphoma causing primary retinal vasculitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1997;5:271–278

194. Dev S, Pulido JS, Tessler HH et al. Progression of diabetic retinopathy after endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology 1999; 106:774–781

195. Huamonte FU, Cyrlin MN, Tessler HT, Goldberg MF. Retinopathy in diabetes associated with sarcoidosis. Ann Ophthalmol 1980;12:1290–1297

196. Forde AM, Feighery C, Jackson J. Anti-monocyte cytoplasmic antibodies in granulomatous disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996;81:88–95

197. Cristea A, Badea T, Bodizs G, Olinic N. Clinical evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in ANCA-associated diseases. J Clin Lab Immunol 1995;46:85–94

198. Knox CM, Chandler D, Short GA, Margolis TP. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays of vitreous samples for the diagnosis of viral retinitis. Use in diagnostic dilemmas. Ophthalmology 1998;105:37–45

199. Abe T, Tsuchida K, Tamai M. A comparative study of the polymerase chain reaction and local antibody production in acute retinal necrosis syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1996;234: 419–424

200. Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Solomon D, Nussenblatt RB. Interleukin-10 in the vitreous of patients with primary intraocular lymphoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;120:671–673

201. Buggage RR, Velez G, Myers-Powell B et al. Primary intraocular lymphoma with a low interleukin 10 to interleukin 6 ratio and heterogeneous IgH gene rearrangement. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:1239–1242

202. Akpek EK, Maca SM, Christen WG, Foster CS. Elevated vitreous Interleukin-10 level is not diagnostic of intraocular-central nervous system lymphoma. Ophthalmology 1999; 106:2291–2295

203. Davis JL, Viciana AL, Ruiz P. Diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma by flow cytometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 124:362–372

204. Matzkin DC, Slamovits TL, Sachs R, Burde RM. Visual recovery in two patients after intravenous methylprednisolone treatment of central retinal artery occlusion secondary to giant-cell arteritis. Ophthalmology 1992;99:68–71

205. Lynch JP, 3rd, Hoffman GS. Wegener's granulomatosis: Controversies and current concepts. Compr Ther 1998; 24:421–440

206. Tessler HH, Jennings T. High-dose short-term chlorambucil for intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 1990;74:353–357

207. Nussenblatt RB, Palestine AG, Chan CC. Cyclosporin A therapy in the treatment of intraocular inflammatory disease resistant to systemic corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96:275–282

208. Suzuki N, Kaneko S, Ichino M et al. In vivo mechanisms for the inhibition of T lymphocyte activation by long-term therapy with tacrolimus (FK-506): Experience in patients with Behçet's disease. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40:1157–1167

209. Okada AA. Cytokine therapy in eye disease [editorial]. Arch Ophthalmol 1998;116:1514–1516

210. Pivetti-Pezzi P, Accorinti M, Pirraglia MP et al. Interferon alpha for ocular Behçet's disease. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1997;75:720–722

211. Azizlerli G, Sarica R, Kose A et al. Interferon alfa-2a in the treatment of Behçet's disease. Dermatology 1996;192: 239–241

Back to Top