Fig. 2. The changes seen in the fundus secondary to hypertension are representative of changes taking place in the arterioles throughout the body. Schema of hypertensive grading: grade I, generalized arteriolar narrowing; grade II, generalized narrowing and focal constrictions; grade III, more narrowing, focal constriction, hemorrhage, and exudation; grade IV, marked narrowing and focal constrictions with hemorrhages, exudates, and edema of the disc. (Scheie HG: Evaluation of ophthalmoscopic changes of hypertension and arteriolar sclerosis. Arch Ophthalmol 49:117, 1953)